My first trip at the age of 19 was to the vineyards of Port ugal, which of course included the Upper Douro, the home of the vine yards. The River Douro runs very close to the growing area. Some thirty years ago a hydro electric dam was built that made a difference to irrigation. The so called soil is a schistous rock, and it is true that dynamite is some times use to break up the ground to plant the nursery vines. Most of the grape varieties grown are form less than ten staples, although over eighty varieties are available.